Diving is a great opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the underwater world and get to know its extraordinary inhabitants.
“Diving” — translated from English means “dive”, “dive under water.” This English word entered the Russian language relatively recently, but has already gained popularity among divers and tourists.
History of occurrence
Despite the relative “youth” of the name of this sport and recreation, people began to be interested in scuba diving as early as 480 BC. This is evidenced by the historical evidence of Herodotus. According to them, during the war, Greek soldiers used diving as a kind of method of fighting enemy ships. They cut the anchor ropes under water, after which the “affected” ships set sail freely without an anchor or were washed ashore by a storm.
However, it should be noted that those very ancient dives rather served as a prototype for the development of a free-diving culture. This type of scuba diving is based on holding your breath. It is used for both commercial and recreational purposes. An example of modern free diving is the dives of famous pearl divers. One dive of a diver can last a few seconds, and can go up to 11 minutes. The main disadvantage of such a dive is the limitation of oxygen and time to hold your breath.
Modern diving equipment with an open breathing system — scuba — was invented in 1943 by the French engineer Emile Gagnan and Navy Captain Jacques-Yves-Cousteau. Thanks to these people, diving became available not only for professional divers, but also for all diving enthusiasts.
Types of diving and their features
Currently, several types of diving are known: recreational diving, professional diving, sport diving, free diving (or apnea).
This type of diving is diving for recreation or entertainment. It is one of the simplest types, which is carried out for the purpose of amateur acquaintance with the underwater world and its inhabitants. This is the only sport for which you do not need to have special training and take heavy equipment with you. Diving depth is limited to 40 meters.
A subclass of recreational diving is technical diving. This is where a high level of diving technique is needed. The main purpose of such a dive is to explore caves, measure the depths of depressions. Diving is carried out to a great depth. Great attention is paid to the safety of divers. A prerequisite for technical diving is additional equipment with special gas, etc. The types of technical diving are:
1. Cave diving (hydrospeleology)
In this type of diving, an important condition is not only the availability of special equipment, but also the ability to work in tight spaces. With such a fear as claustrophobia, diving is strictly prohibited. Preparing for a dive usually takes a long period of time. Divers prepare both physically and mentally. Hydrospeleology is very dangerous, first of all, because there is no possibility of a quick ascent to the surface, there is an overhead environment. Swimming is carried out in conditions of poor visibility, and sometimes in complete darkness.
2. Swamp diving
Swamp diving is carried out in flooded quarries and neglected reservoirs. It is believed that this type of diving belongs to the category of extreme types. An important characteristic of swamp diving is that when diving, visibility is very limited, and the water is significantly polluted.
Professional diving (diving work)
This is a type of diving, the main condition of which is special education and work experience. Commercial dives are mainly carried out for the purpose of installation / dismantling (welding, lifting underwater objects, etc.). Therefore, in addition to the standard equipment for diving, this type of diving uses additional equipment (suits with circulation of very hot water, cylinders with gas mixtures, specific equipment, etc.).
The most common types of diving work are:
- Civil diving (a wide variety of underwater activities that are carried out exclusively for peaceful purposes)
- Military dives (security and protection of objects, reconnaissance, etc.)
- Commercial diving (most often represented by diving with groups of tourists and amateurs, to pass certain routes)
- Media diving (diving for the purpose of filming used for the media).
- Scientific diving (diving for scientific research)
A sport, the essence of which is underwater diving using special equipment. Unlike recreational diving, it has several limitations:
- The diver must have an appropriate certificate with a certain classification
- According to the diver’s classification level, his maximum diving depth is set.
- It is strictly forbidden to exceed the no-decompression limit
- For breathing, use only compressed air or nitrox (a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen)
- Diving should only take place in “open water”.
Sports diver training has several stages (Open Water Diver, Dive Master in the PADI system, or NAUI or NDL). With the passage of each level, the diver increases his classification and receives a certificate of completion of the course.
If you are only interested in recreational surface swimming or free diving, you can easily get by with a basic kit that includes a snorkel, mask and fins. But if you really want to try yourself as a diver, then you need to take care of the full set of equipment. It includes:
A wetsuit isn’t just for cold water. After all, its function is not only to protect you from temperature changes, but also to reduce other types of exposure to the aquatic environment. In addition, it is he who will help protect your body from various kinds of damage. If the suit does not provide a glued helmet, you should stock up on an autonomous one.
The function of the fins is to increase your speed and maneuverability underwater. If your fins are designed to have an open heel, include special boots that protect your foot.
Allows you to observe the underwater flora and fauna surrounding you.
Helps regulate your level of buoyancy. This happens due to the adjustment of the volume of air that is between its walls.
Allows you to stay underwater for extended periods of time. Before diving, be sure to check if the cylinder is full, if there are any leaks, if all the components of the apparatus are in order.
Belt with weights
Also, depending on the wishes and need, you can take a flashlight, a tugboat, a compass, a knife and other useful things for scuba diving.
Tips for beginner divers
If you want to do any of the above dives, then you need to know that diving is not just fun. Diving under water is always associated with a great risk to life (drowning, barotrauma, gas poisoning, decompression sickness). There are also certain contraindications for diving. Among them:
- various types of viral diseases
- chronic infections, etc.
Also, if you are not a professional, you should definitely be instructed before diving.
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