Why do the seasons change?


In the long cold winter we had a lot of fun frolicking in the snow. But we look forward to swapping out our hats and gloves for shorts and tank tops when the weather gets warmer. But how do we know warm weather is on the way? Is it likely that it will be cold and it will snow all year? Fortunately, the answer to this question is «no». After the end of winter, spring will come with warmer temperatures and more flowers. The weather will then become hot in the summer and then cool again in the fall. The cold weather will return as autumn turns into winter and the cycle begins anew. So why do the seasons change?

change of seasons

I suggest you consider a number of interesting questions:

  • Why do the seasons change?
  • Why is there more daylight in summer than in winter?
  • Do all corners of the Earth experience the same seasons at the same time?

You know that there are many different types of weather throughout the year, but have you ever wondered why the seasons change? The answers can be found in how the Earth moves relative to the Sun.


The Earth’s axis is an imaginary line between the north and south poles. Every day the Earth makes one complete rotation around its axis. This rotation takes 24 hours, which we call one day.

While the Earth is busy with daily rotations, it also moves in a giant oval path around the Sun. This path is called the Earth’s orbit. Our planet takes 365 days to make one complete trip around the sun. In fact, we define this journey around the Sun as one year.

When the Earth revolves around the Sun, it is slightly tilted on its axis. Tilt means that on any given day the Earth is pointing slightly towards or away from the Sun. You can also read why leaves change color in autumn.

seasons change

Depending on where you stand on Earth, sometimes your half of the world (called a hemisphere) is pointing towards the Sun. In other cases, your hemisphere is directed away from the Sun. As the Earth moves around the Sun throughout the year and its axial tilt points your hemisphere towards or away from the Sun, you experience the changing of the seasons.

Have you ever noticed that the sun does not hide behind the horizon for a long time in summer? However, by the time winter sets in, you are likely to have dinner when it is already dark outside. The amount of daylight your hemisphere receives also varies due to the Earth’s tilted axis.

When the N Pole is tilted towards the Sun, the northern hemisphere receives more sunlight and enjoys longer days. This period of longer days, warmer weather and more sunshine is what we call summer. But just because you are enjoying a beautiful hot summer, it does not mean that such weather prevails in all corners of the Earth.


When the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, the southern hemisphere is tilted. At this time, residents of the northern hemisphere can go to the pool, or to the sea coast. During this time, the southern hemisphere experiences shorter days with less sunshine. When it is summer in the northern hemisphere, it is winter in the southern hemisphere. For the same reason, different regions of large countries can have different climates.

Places near the equator tend to have warm weather all year round. This is because the tilt of the Earth affects them less drastically. Whether the Earth is tilted or tilted away from the Sun, equatorial locations continue to receive more constant light and heat than locations closer to the poles at latitudes. But this does not mean that they do not have seasons at all.